Dinosaur ichnology has been undergoing a major modernisation in data acquisition techniques over the past few years. Different research groups have been testing several methods for the acquisition of three-dimensional data since the late 1980’s, but it has only been in recent years that major developments have led to increased resolution and ease of use, accompanied by a fall in cost that has made digital data acquisition available to all. However, with this new-found ability with which to digitally document fossil tracks, 3D ichnology is now facing new challenges: first and foremost is how to interpret the 3D digital representation of a track.
The information that can be obtained from a digital specimen is often superior to the real object, as it is easy to manipulate, create false-colour images, cross-section or produce contour-lines. Although such data are inherently objective, deciding which data should be used, e.g. for metrics such as track length and width, remains entirely subjective and dependent on the investigator. There is therefore a strong need for standardisation in interpretation of digital data.
At present, but especially in the coming years, 3D digital ichnology will become as popular as classical surveying methods, and sharing ichnological data through the internet will become the norm, favouring quantitative approaches to the morphological analyses which would be at the base for a higher understanding of the taxonomical variations among dinosaur ichnites.
But, are we sure that classical methods are completely overtaken? Or is there any good in these “analogic” approach to vertebrate fossil footprints?
Office de la culture, Paléontologie A16
Although the news is full of stories about recession and unemployment, the demand for geologists is stronger than in most other business sectors. Together with the environmental sector, the academia and mineral resources branches represent the main sources of employment for young graduates worldwide. Initially, we will examine the early career stage of a geologist in the academia: from the last years as a master students to a PhD degree, as this represent the first steps for a future career in the oil and gas sector or as a researcher in the university. The seminar will then develop around the role of a geologist in the Norwegian oil and gas business, with particular focus on the tasks of young graduates in the reservoir and exploration departments. Suggestions on how to prepare your CV, screening interviews and how to be successful in the early hiring phase will conclude the seminar.
One of the most beautiful features of upland landscapes is the regular pattern of ridges and valleys. The length scale of these features plays an important role in determining the flow pathways of both water and sediment: water and sediment move much more slowly on hillslope than in channels so changes in hillslope and channel lengths have profound impacts on flow and sediment routing. Here we examine ways for measuring landscape scale. Once measured, metrics such as drainage density and hillslope length can yield insights into the processes behind landscape evolution.
Sedimentary basins represent highly complex systems where several components interact in a nonlinear and dynamic way through diverse temporal and spatial scales. They play a strategic role in the whole Earth’s system dynamics, buffering deep geodynamics to processes occurring at the Earth’s surface. They share a socio-economic dimension in the prospect to secure long-term, sustainable usage of their mineral, fossil and renewable resources. Processes taking place in these systems occur over more than 15 orders of magnitude in spatial scales (from the nanometer scale of lattice defects to the thousand kms scale of mantle convection) and across more than 20 orders of magnitude in temporal scale (from less than seconds to millions of years). Interestingly, despite differences in their relevant wavelengths and temporal scales, all of these processes are interdependent and non-linearly coupled. The amount of data nowadays available enables a detailed characterization of both their geological settings and thermo-mechanical state. As many geological processes occur over very long time- and large length-scales and involve complex rheologies, computer models, tightly coupled to observations and data, are ideally suited to their study. This field of research is a relatively new scientific discipline, and as a result, there are still unresolved technical challenges particularly related to modelling geodynamic processes in three dimensions.
GFZ - Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - German Research Centre for Geosciences
La Dolomia di Forni è una formazione marina bacinale del Triassico superiore (Norico) che affiora tra i paesi di Verzegnis e Forni di Sopra nell'Alta Valle del Tagliamento in Carnia (Friuli). Ritenuta sterile, agli inizi degli anni '80 del secolo scorso ha iniziato a fornire una peculiare e varia associazione fossile costituita principalmente da crostacei decapodi e vegetali terrestri, ma anche da pesci, 'rettili' e altri invertebrati (altri crostacei, ofiuroidi, gasteropodi, bivalvi, cefalopodi, aracnidi, policheti). L'ittiofauna, solo in parte studiata, è piuttosto diversificata e i 'rettili' includono alcuni tra i più antichi pterosauri e i bizzarri Megalancosaurus e Langobardisaurus. La Dolomia di Forni si è rivelata essere un importante Fossil-Lagerstätten del Triassico superiore a livello mondiale.
Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Friuli Venezia Giulia, Nucleo Operativo di Udine
The development of shale reservoirs was the biggest
technical revolution in the oil and gas industry since the move to the offshore plays. Although shale reservoirs were well known, and
occasionally developed, since decades, the oil shale and gas shale boomed only in the beginning of the XXI century with the application to the low-budget projects typical of the shale business of expensive state-of-the art directional drilling, logging while drilling, stimulation and completion technologies originally developed for high- budget offshore projects. The application of these technologies to the shall reservoir had disruptive effects on the whole industry, threatening the market dominance of conventional oil and triggering an oil price war. This lecture will briefly cover the challanges posed by the develpment of unconventional shale reservoirs and the technical solutions adopted to overcome those challenges.
The assessment of river conditions is crucial for appropriate management and planning of sound interventions of river restoration. Hydromorphology is the discipline that links hydrology and fluvial geomorphology, and the European Water Framework Directive (2000) introduced its evaluation in addition to the assessment of the physical-chemical and biological elements of rivers. Hydromorphological alteration is one of most severe impact on streams and several methods were developed in Europe, but also worldwide, in the last 15 years for the assessment and monitoring of hydromorphology.
The seminar will present the scientific activities and outputs of the post-doc fellowship “Assessment and monitoring the hydromorphological condition of rivers” (2014-16). The first part of the seminar will focus on the results of the analysis of the national-scale dataset (i.e. more than 2300 river reaches) that collects the applications of the Morphological Quality Index (MQI). The MQI is the national method for the assessment of hydromorphological conditions since 2010 and the analysis of this large dataset, based on data from different Regional Environmental Agencies (ARPA) and of research institutes (i.e. University of Padova, Firenze and Bolzano), allows to describe the status and to identify the main pressures affecting Italian streams.
The second part of the seminar will focus on the implementation of the MQI for its application in other European countries, in the context of the European FP7 project REFORM. Some integrations (e.g. the introduction of the assessment of aquatic vegetation in low-energy rivers) were carried out in order to ensure data comparability and to correctly evaluate channel morphologies (e.g. anabranching) that were under-represented in the Italian context. The study-cases, located in Germany and Poland, were also subjected to inteventions of restoration and this offered the possibility to test the MQIm (Morphological Quality Index for monitoring), a tool that was specifically developed for monitoring short-term changes of channel conditions.
Assegnista di ricerca.
Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova.